Glossary


A Lexicon of terms used in Shotokan Karate

Japanese - English

-A-

	Age -			Rising.
	Age Tsuki (Zuki) -	Rising Punch.
	Age Uke -  	        Rising reception (Block).
	Age Zuki - 		See Age Tsuki.
	Aka -			Red.
	Aoi -			Blue.
	Ai Ki - 		Harmonious Spirit.
	Ai - 		        Harmony.
	Ashi Barai -		"Foot Sweep."
	Ashi Ura -		Sole of foot.
	Ashi Waza -		Foot Techniques.
	Ashi Yubi -		Toes (also called Tsuma).
	Ashi -			Foot.
	Atama -           	Head.
	Atemi Waza -           	Striking Techniques. (Esp. pressure points.)
	Atemi -           	Striking. (Esp. pressure points.)
	Awase Uke -		"Joined Hand Reception (Block)".
	Awase Tsuki -		"U Punch". Also referred to as MOROTE ZUKI.


-B-
	

	Bitei -			Coccyx.
	Bo -          		Long Staff.
	Bojutsu -           	Long staff techniques.
	Bokken -          	Wooden sword.
	Budo -           	Martial way. The Japanese character for "BU"
 				whos literal meaning is "martial" is derived 
				from characters meaning	"stop" and (a weapon like a) 
				"halberd." In conjunction, then, "BU" may have the
				connotation "to stop the halberd." In Karate,
				there is an assumption that the best way to
 				prevent violent conflict is to emphasise the
 				cultivation of individual character. The way
 				(DO) of Karate is thus equivalent to the way of
 				BU, taken in this sense of preventing or
				avoiding violence as far as possible.
	Bugei -           	Martial arts.
	Bujutsu -          	Martial techniques.
	Bunkai -          	Applications of Kata.
	Bushi -           	Warrior class.
	Bushido -           	Way of the warrior.


-C-


	Cha-iroi -		Brown.
	Cha-iroi Ichi Shiroi -	Brown and White.
	Cha-iroi Ni Shiroi -	Brown and Double White.
	Choku Tsuki -          	Straight punch.
	Choku -           	Straight.
	Chudan -          	The Middle section of the body. The torso and
 				up to just below shoulder height.
	Chui -			Foul (In competition).


-D-


	Dachi -         	Stance.
	Dai -			Great/Greater.
 	Dan - 			"Level", "Rank" or "Degree". Black Belt rank. 
				Ranks under Black Belt are called KYU ranks.
	Do -           		The Way.
	Dojo - 			Place of the Way ;  Training Hall.
	Dokko -			Mastoid process (behind the ear).
	

-E-


	Embusen - 		Floor pattern of movement in a given KATA.
	Empi (Anatomical) -	Elbow.
	Empi Uchi -          	Elbow strike.
	Empi -           	Name of a kata.
	Enorei -		Relax.
	Eri -			Collar.
	


-F-


	Fudo Dachi -           	Rooted stance or ready stance, feet parallel
 				approximately shoulder width apart.
	Fumikomi - 		"Stamp kick", usually applied to the knee, shin,
 				or instep of an opponent.

-G-

	Gankaku Dachi -		"Crane Stance", sometimes referred to as 
				Tsuru ashi dachi and Sagi ashi dachi.
	Gasshuku -		A special training camp.
	Gatame -           	Arm Bar.
	Gedan Juji Uke -        Lower cross reception (block).
	Gedan -          	The lower region of the body, usually from the
 				hips down.
	Gedan Barai -          	Low block.
	Gedan Ude Uke -		"Low Forearm reception (block)".
	Geri -           	Kick.
	Gi -           		Karate Training uniform.
	Go No Sen -		The tactic where one allows the opponent to
 				attack first so to open up targets for 
				counterattack.
	Gohon Kumite - 		Five step basic sparring. The attacker steps in 
				five consecutive times with a striking technique 
				with each step. The defender steps back five
 				times, blocking each technique. After the fifth
 				block, the defender executes a counter-strike.
	Gyaku Tsuki -           Punch performed with the hand opposite the 				
				forward leg in stance.


-H-


	Hachiji Dachi -         Open leg stance.
	Hadari -           	Left.
	Hai -          		Yes.
	Haishu Juji Uke -	'X' shaped reception (block) using the back of the hands.
	Haishu Uchi -		A strike with the back of the hand.
	Haishu Uke -		A reception (block) using the back of the hand.
	Haito -           	Strike made with the "ridge" of the hand just 				
				above the thumb. (Opp. of a hammer fist or
 				knife hand.)
	Haiwan Uke -		Back of the arms reception (block).
	Hajime -		"Begin". A command given to start a given drill, 
				Kata, or Kumite.
	Hangetsu Dachi -	"Half-Moon Stance".
	Hanmi -			Three quarter facing.
	Hanshi -		"Master." An honorary title given to the highest 
				Black Belt of an organisation, signifying their 
				understanding of their art.
	Hansoku-make -		Lose through violation of rules.
	Hantei -		Call to referees for judgement.
	Hasami Tsuki -		"Scissor Punch". 
	Harai Te -		"Sweeping technique with the arm."
	Harai Waza -		"Sweeping techniques".
	Hara -			Belly.
	Hayai -			Fast.
	Heiko Dachi -		A natural stance. Feet positioned about one 				
				shoulder width apart, with feet pointed straight
 				forward. Some Kata begin from this position.
	Heiko Tsuki -		"Parallel Punch" (A double, simultaneous
 				punch).
	Heisoku Dachi -		An informal attention stance. Feet are together
 				and pointed straight forward.
	Henka Waza -		Techniques used after OYO WAZA is applied. 
				Henka waza is varied and many, dependent on
 				the given condition.
	Hichu -			Adams apple.
	Hidari -		"Left".
	Hiji -			"Elbow", also known as EMPI.
	Hiji Ate -		"Elbow Strike". Also referred to as EMPI UCHI.
	Hiji Uke -		A recieving action using the elbow.
	Hikite -		The retracting (pulling and twisting) arm during 				
				a technique. It gives the balance of power to
 				the forward moving technique. It can also be
 				used as a  pulling technique after a grab, or a
 				strike rearward with the elbow.
 	Hikiwake -		Draw.
	Hiku -			Pull
	Hiraken -           	Strike made with the back of the knuckles on a 				
				fist. 									
				(Generally done very fast and whip-like.)
	Hitosashi Ippon Ken -	"Forefinger Knuckle".
	Hiza Geri -           	See Hizaken Geri.
	Hizaken Geri -         	Strike driving the knee into the target.
	Hizagashira -		Kneecap.
	Hombu Dojo -		A term used to refer to the central dojo of an 
				organization. 
	Hon -			Basic, Fundamental
	Horan No Kamae -	"Egg in the Nest Ready Position." A "ready" 				
				position used in some KATA where the fist in
 				covered by the other hand.


-I-


	Ippon -			One point.
	Ippon Ken -          	A fist made with one knuckle extended, usually 				
				the index or middle finger. Generally used for a
 				pressure point strike.
	Ippon Kumite -		"One step sparring". The designated attacker 				
				makes one attack, after which the defender
 				counter-attacks.
	Ippon Nukite -          A stabbing attack using only the extended
 				index finger.


-J-


	Jikan -			Time up.
	Jiyu Ippon Kumite -	One attack semi free sparring
	Jiyu Kumite -		"Free Sparring".
	Jo -          		Short staff.
	Jodan - 		The upper section of the body, the head.
	Jogai -			"Out of Bounds". Used in tournaments.
	Joko -			Slow
	Ju -			Ten.
	Juji Uke - 		Reception (block) with both forearms crossed.


-K-


	Kachikake -		Point of jaw.
	Kaeshi -		Counter attack.
	Kaeshu Ippon Kumite -	Counter attack semi free sparring
	Kage Uke -		Hooking reception (block).
	Kai -			Style
	Kaisho -		Open handed.
	Kakae Te -		Trapping block.
	Kakato Geri - 		Kick where heel is used to strike opponent, 				
				generally to the rear. (see Ushiro geri).
	Kagi Tsuki -		"Hook Punch".
	Kakiwake Uke -		Wedging open reception (block).
	Kaisho -		"Open hand." This refers to the type of blow 				
				which is delivered with the open palm. It can
 				also be used to describe other hand blows in
 				which the fist is not fully clenched.
	Kake-te -		"Hook Block" or "Hooking Technique."
	Kake-waza -		"Hooking Technique."
	Kakiwake -		A two handed block using the outer surface of
 				the wrist to neutralize a two-handed attack,
 				such as a grab.
	Kakushi waza -		"Hidden techniques."
	Kakuto uchi -		"Wrist joint strike." Also known as "KO UCHI."
	Kakuto uke -		"Wrist Joint reception (Block)." Also known as KO UKE.
	Kamae -			A posture or stance either with or without a 				
				weapon. Kamae may also connote proper
 				distance (Ma-ai) with respect to one's partner.  			
				Although "Kamae" generally refers to a
				physical stance, there is an important parallel
 				in Karate between one's physical and one's
 				psychological bearing. Adopting a strong
 				physical stance helps to promote the
				correlative adoption of a strong psychological
 				attitude. It is important to try so far as possible
 				to maintain a positive and strong mental
 				bearing in Karate.
	Kami -			Hair.
	Kansetsu waza -		Joint-lock techniques.
	Kappo -			Techniques of resuscitating people who have 				
				succumbed to a shock to the nervous system.
        Kara Te - 		(Ancient - China Hand), A style of empty hand 				
				fighting whose basics come from China and
 				was further developed in Okinawa and Japan.
				KARATE-DO "The Way of Karate". This implies
 				not only the physical aspect of Karate, but also
 				the mental and social aspects of Karate.
        Kata -			A complete set of choreographed martial 				
				movements.
        Katana - 		Japanese curved long sword.
	Kasumi -		Temple.
	Kawashi -		Evasion.
	Keage -			Snap Kick. (Literally, Kick rising).
	Keiko -			(1) Training. The only secret to success in      
  				    Karate. 
				(2) "Joined Fingertips".
	Keichu -		Back of neck.
	Keito Uchi -		Base of thumb strike.
	Kekomi -		Thrust Kick ( Literally, Kick Into/Straight ).
	Kempo -			"Fist Law." A generic term to describe fighting 				
				systems that uses the fist. In this regard,
 				KARATE is also KEMPO. In Chinese, it is
 				pronounced "Chuan Fa".
        Ken - 			Closed hand used for various strikes.
	Kensei - 		The technique with silent KIAI. Related to
 				meditation.
	Kentsui - 		"Hammer Fist" Also known as TETTSUI. 
	Kentsui uchi -		See TETTSUI UCHI "Hammer Fist Strike". 
        Ki Ai - 		Shout used to harmonise the body and energy
 				during a martial technique.
        Ki -			Vitality. A Yang counterpart to Blood(Yin), it
 				forms and circulates blood. See San Bao (Chinese).
        Kiba Dachi - 		Stance with feet parallel and twice shoulder
 				width apart.
	Ki Rei Tu -		Stand Up.
        Kihon -			(Something which is) fundamental. Basic
 				techniques.
	Kime -			Focus of Power.
	Kin Geri -		Instep kick to groin.
	Kinteki -		Testicles.
	Kiroi -			Yellow
	Kizami Tsuki - 		"Jab Punch".
	Ko -			Small, Minor.
	Ko bo ittchi - 		The concept of "Attack-Defence Connection".
	Kobore -		Tibia.
	Ko uchi -		"Wrist joint strike." Also known as KAKUTO 				
				UCHI.
	Ko uke -		"Crane reception (Block)" or "Arch reception (Block)". Same as
 				KAKUTO UKE.
	Kohai -			A student junior to oneself.
	Kokoro -		"Spirit, Heart." In Japanese culture, the spirit
 				dwells in the Heart.
	Koken -			"Wrist Joint".
	Kokutsu dachi -		A stance which has most of the weight to the
 				back. Referred to in English as "Back Stance".
	Kosa dachi -		"Crossed-Leg Stance".
	Koshin -		"Rearward".
	Kuatsu -		The method of resuscitating a person who has
 				lost consciousness due to strangulation or
 				shock.
	Kubotan -		A self-defence tool developed by TAKAYUKI
 				KUBOTA. This tool serves normally as a key
 				chain.
	Koshi -			Hips and also ball of foot.
	Kubi -			Neck.
	Kumade - 		"Bear hand."
        Kumite - 		Sparring.
	Kuroi -			Black.
	Kyoku -			Breathing.
	Kyosen -		Solar plexus (also Suigetsu).
	Kyoshi -		"Master Instructor." A Dan level in the
				sequence of RENSHI, KYOSHI, and HANSHI.
	Kyototsu -		Sternum.
	Kyu -			"Grade". Any rank below Shodan.
	Kyusho waza -		Pressure Point techniques.


-L-

-M-
	

	Ma-ai -			Proper distancing or timing with respect to
 				one's partner. Since Karate techniques always
 				vary according to circumstances, it is important
 				to understand how differences in initial position
 				affect the timing and application of techniques.
	Mae -			Front. 
        Mae Geri - 		Front Kick. Kick with the ball of the foot
				impacting target parallel to the kicking leg.
	Mae ashi geri -		Kicking with the front leg.
	Mae geri keage -	"Front Snap Kick". Also referred to as MAE
 				KEAGE.
	Mae geri kekomi -	"Front Thrust Kick:. Also referred to as MAE
 				KEKOMI.
	Mae ukemi - 		"forward fall/roll".
	Makiwara -		Striking Post.
	Makoto - 		A feeling of absolute sincerity and total
				frankness, which requires a pure mind, free
 				from pressure of events.
	Manabu -		"Learning by imitating." A method of studying
 				movement and techniques by following and
 				imitating the instructor.
	Manji uke -		A Double armed reception (block) where one arm executes
 				GEDAN BARAI to one side, while the other
 				arm executes JODAN UCHI UKE (or JODAN
 				SOTO YOKO TE).
	Mata -			Top of thigh.
	Matte - 		"Wait".
        Mawashi Geri -		This kick pivots at the knee, rotates around the
 				body, hitting with the ball of the foot. For hitting
 				with the instep the command is SEASHI MAWASHI GERI.
	Mawashi Tsuki -		"Roundhouse Punch".
	Mawashi hiji ate - 	"Circular Elbow Strike". Also referred to as
 				MAWASHI EMPI UCHI.
	Mawat-te -		A command given by the instructor for students
 				to turn around.
	Midori -		Green.
        Migi -			Right.
	Mikazuki geri -		"Crescent Kick".
	Mimi -			Ears.
	Mokuso -		Meditation. Practice often begins or ends with
 				a brief period of meditation. The purpose of
 				meditation is to clear one's mind and to
				develop cognitive equanimity. Perhaps more
 				importantly, meditation is an opportunity to
 				become aware of conditioned patterns of
 				thought and behaviour so that such patterns
 				can be modified, eliminated or more efficiently
 				put to use.
	Moroashi Dachi -	Semi forward stance.
	Morote Tsuki -		"U-Punch". Punching with both fists. Also
 				referred to as AWASE ZUKI.
	Morote uke -		"Augmented reception (Block)". One arm and fist support
 				the other arm.
	Moto dachi -		A short forward stance, also referred to as
 				HAN-ZENKUTSU DACHI.
	Mudansha -		Students without black-belt ranking.
	Mune:			Chest.
	Murasaki:		Purple.
	Mushin - 		"No Mind." The state of being that allows
 				freedom and flexibility to react and adapt to a
 				given situation.
	Musubi dachi -	 	An attention stance with feet pointed slightly
 				outward.


-N-


	Nagashi uke -	 	"Sweeping reception (Block)" using the palm of the hand
 				to sweep the attack to the side of the body.
	Nage waza -		Throwing/take-down techniques.
        Naginata - 		A pole arm with a blade affixed to the end
 				designed for slashing. Naginatajutsu is a well
 				practised art of the samurai women of Japan.
	Naifanchi dachi - 	"Straddle Stance." Also referred to as
				NAIHANCHI DACHI and KIBA DACHI.
	Naihanchi dachi - 	"Straddle Stance". Also referred to as KIBA
 				DACHI and NAIFANCHI(N) DACHI.
	Naiwan Uke:		Inside of the arms reception (block).
        Naha Te - 		The martial art which comes from the Naha
 				village in Okinawa.
        Naha - 			One of the three major villages in Okinawa
 				from which Martial traditions spring See also
 				Shuri and Tomari.
	Nakadaka ippon ken -	"Middle Finger Knuckle".
	Nami-gaeshi -		"Returning Wave." Foot technique found in
 				Tekki Shodan to block an attack to the groin
 				area. The technique can also be used to strike
 				the opponent's inner thigh or knee, as well as
 				to sweep an opponent's leg.
	Neko ashi dachi -	"Cat Leg Stance".
	Nihon nukite -		Two finger spear hand “stabbing” attack.
	Nidan -			Second Level, as in Second Degree Black Belt.
	Nidan geri -		"Double Kick".
        Nukite -           	A strike made with the open hand, thrusting
 				forward with the tips of the fingers. (Hand
 				generally held vertically.)
	Nunchaku -		An Okinawan weapon consisting of two sticks
 				connected by rope or chain. This was originally
 				used by the Okinawans as a farm tool to thrash
 				rice straw.

-O-


	O			Big, Major.
	Obi -			A belt.
        Oi Tsuki -		Punch performed with the hand over the
 				forward leg in stance.
	Onaji waza -		"Same technique".
	Onegai shimasu -	"I make a request" or "I ask of You..." This is
 				said while bowing to one's partner when
 				initiating practice, to the instructor at the
 				beginning of training, or to anyone when asking
 				a favor/request.
	Orenji -		Orange
	Osae uke -		"Pressing reception (Block)".
	Oss -			Agreement.
	Osu -			Push.
	Otoshi -		Dropping.
	Otoshi empi uchi - 	An elbow strike by dropping the elbow. Also
 				referred to as Otoshi Hiji Ate.
	Oyayubi ippon ken -	"Thumb Knuckle".
	Oyo waza -		Applications interpreted from techniques in
 				Kata, implicated according to a given condition.


-P-


-Q-


-R-


	Rei -			"Respect". A method of showing respect in
 				Japanese culture is the Bow. It is proper for the
 				junior person bows lower than the senior 				
				person. Etiquette dictates that one should bow
 				when entering the dojo, when entering the
 				training area, when greeting Sensei, when
 				greeting a Black Belt BUDOKA, when
				beginning or ending a training session with a
				partner, when beginning or ending a kata
 				performance, and when someone bows to you.
	Reigi -	 		Etiquette. Also referred to as REISHIKI.
				Observance of proper etiquette at all times (but
 				especially observance of proper DOJO
				etiquette) is as much a part of one's training as
 				the practice of techniques. Observation of
 				etiquette indicates one's sincerity, one's
 				willingness to learn, and one's recognition of
 				the rights and interests of others.
	Renoji dachi -		A stance with feet making a 'L-shape.'
	Rensei -		Practice Tournament. Competitors are
				critiqued on their performances.
	Renshi -		"A person who has mastered oneself." This
 				person is considered an expert instructor. This
 				status is prerequisite before attaining the
 				status as KYOSHI.
        Ryu -			School.


-S-


	Saei Rei Tu -		Line Up.
	Sagi ashi dachi -	One Leg Stance. Also referred to as
				TSURU ASHI DACHI.
	Sai - 			An Okinawan weapon that is shaped like the
 				Greek letter 'Psi' with the middle being much
 				longer.
	Sakotsu -		Collar bone.
	Sanbon kumite -		"Three Step Sparring".
	Sanbon shobu -		Three Point match. Used in tournaments.
	Sanbon Tsuki -		Triple punch.
	Sanchin dachi - 	"Hour-glass Stance".
	Sasae -			Prop, Propping.
	Sashite - 		Raising of the hand either to strike, grab, or
 				block.
        Seiken -		Strike made with knuckles on fist held
				vertically.
	Seiryuto - 		"Bull Strike." A hand technique delivered with
 				the base of the SHUTO (Knife hand).
	Seiza -			A proper sitting position. Sitting on one's
 				knees. Sitting this way requires acclimatization, 
				but provides both a stable base and greater ease 
				of movement than sitting cross-legged. It is used 
				for the formal opening and closing of the class.
	Sempai -		A senior student.
	Sen no sen -		Attacking at the exact moment when the opponent 
				attacks.
	Sen sen no sen -	Attacking before the opponent attacks, a 					
				Pre-emptive attack.
        Sensei - 		Teacher.
        Seppuku -		The ritual of suicide in Japanese culture used
 				to regain ones lost honour.
	Shiai -			A match or a contest (Event).
	Shidoin - 		Formally recognized Instructor who has not yet
 				been recognized as a SENSEI. Assistant
 				Instructor. The SHIDOIN serves as the
				instructor who teaches the technical aspects of
 				Karate.
	Shihan -		A formal title meaning, approximately, "master
 				instructor." A "teacher of teachers."
	Shiko dachi -	 	"Square Stance". A stance often used in Goju-	
				Ryu and Shito-Ryu.
	Shime waza -		Choking/Strangling techniques.
	Shiroi -		White.
	Shizentai - 		"Natural Position". The body remains relaxed
 				but alert.
	Sho -			Less, Lesser.
	Shobu -			Official contest.
	Shomen -		Front or top of head. Also the designated front
 				of a Dojo.
        Shuri Te - 		The martial art which comes from the Shuri
 				village in Okinawa.
        Shuri - 		One of the three major villages in Okinawa
 				from which Martial traditions spring. See also
 				Naha and Tomari.
        Shuto - 		Strike made with the bottom edge of hand with
 				hand open and held rigid. Colloquially called
 				"Chop" (Opp. of ridge hand.)
        Sochin dachi - 		"Immovable Stance". Also referred to as Fudo
 				Dachi.
	Sode -			Sleeve.
        Sokuto Geri -		Kick performed with blade edge of foot.
	Sorashi	-		Feignt, Fake attack.
        Soto Uke -		Mid body reception (block) with an outside to inside
 				motion of the forearm.
	Sukui uke -		"Scooping reception (Block)".
	Sutemi -		Sacrifice
	Suwari waza -		"Techniques from a sitting position."


-T-


        Tachi -			Long one edged slightly curved sword
				commonly used by samurai. Slightly longer
 				than the Katana.
	Tai -			Body.
	Tai sabaki - 		Body movement/shifting.
	Tameshiwari -		Breaking.
        Tanto -			Short dagger or long knife, often used during
 				seppuku.
	Tate -			Vertical
	Tate empi -		"Upward Elbow Strike".
	Tate tsuki(zuki) - 	"Vertical Punch." A fist punch with the palm
 				along a vertical plane. 
        Te - 			Hand.
	Te Kubi -		Wrist.
	Teiji dachi - 		A Stance with the feet in a 'T-shape.' 
        Teisho -		Strike made with the palm or "heel" of the
 				hand.
	Tento -			Top of skull.
	Tettsui -		Hammerfist strike.
	Tobi geri - 		"Jump Kick".
	Tobi Tsuki(zuki) -	Jumping in punch.
	Tomoe -			Stomach.
       	Tomari Te - 		The martial art which comes from the Tomari
 				village in Okinawa.
       	Tomari - 		One of the three major villages in Okinawa
 				from which Martial traditions spring. See also
 				Naha and Shuri.
	Tonfa - 		A farm tool developed into a weapon by the
 				Okinawans.
	Tsukami waza - 		"Catching technique." A blocking technique by
 				seizing the opponent's weapon, arm, or leg.
 				Used often for grappling techniques.
        Tsuki -			A strike made with a closed fist using the
 				knuckles.
	Tsuru ashi dachi -	"Crane Stance", also referred to as SAGI ASHI DACHI.
	Tuite -	 		Grappling skills.


-U-


	Uchi deshi - 		A live-in student/disciple. A student who lives
 				in a dojo and devotes him/herself both to
 				training and to the maintenance of the dojo
 				(and sometimes to personal service to the
 				SENSEI of the dojo). 
	Uchi mawashi geri -	"Inside Roundhouse Kick".
        Uchi Uke -		Mid body reception (block) with an inside to outside
 				motion of the forearm.
	Ude Uke -		Forearm reception (block).
	Ude -			Forearm.
        Uke - 			A defensive motion made to deflect or stop an
 				attack. literally meaning "To recieve" or "Reciever"
	Ukemi waza -		"Break-fall techniques."
	Uki ashi dachi -	A stance similar to the cat-stance, performed
 				in the kata HANGETSU.
	Ura zuki - 		An upper cut punch used at close range.
	Uraken -		"Back Knuckle".
	Ushiro empi uchi -	Striking to the rear with the elbow.
        Ushiro Geri -		Kick executed by thrusting heel to rear, at
 				opponent attacking from behind. Type of
 				Kakato geri.
	Ushiro Mawashi Geri -	Reverse roundhouse kick.
	Ushiro:	Back.
	
-V-


-W-


	Wan -			Arm
        Wakizashi -		Short sword of the same style as the katana,
 				about three quarters the length.
	Washide -		Eagles beak hand.
	Waza -			Technique(s).
	Waza-ari Awasette-Ippon -  Two half points making Ippon.
	Waza-ari -		Half point.


-X-

-Y-


	Yama zuki - 		"Mountain Punch". A wide U-shaped dual 				
				punch.
	Yame -	 		"Stop".
        Yari - 			A pole arm with a straight narrow blade
				designed for thrusting.
	Yoi - 			"Ready".
	Yoko - 	 		"Side".
	Yoko geri keage - 	"Side Snap Kick". Also referred to as YOKO
 				KEAGE.
	Yoko geri kekomi - 	"Side Thrust Kick". Also referred to as YOKO
 				KEKOMI.
	Yoko mawashi empi uchi - Striking with the elbow to the side.
	Yoko tobi geri - 	"Flying Side Kick".
	Yonhon Nukite -		Four finger spearhand thrust.
	Yubi -			Finger.
	Yudansha -		Black belt holder (any rank).
	Yusei-gachi -		Winner by superiority.
	



        	
-Z-


	Zanshin -		Lit. "remaining mind/heart." Even after a Karate
 				technique has been completed, one should
 				remain in a balanced and aware state.
				ZANSHIN thus connotes "following through" in
 				a technique, as well as preservation of one's
				awareness so that one is prepared to respond
 				to additional attacks. 
	Za-rei - 		The traditional Japanese bow from the
				kneeling position.
	Zenkutsu dachi - 	"Forward Stance".
	Zenshin - 		"Forward".
	Zori - 			Japanese slippers.

  

NUMBER SYSTEM
	
1 	Ichi			One
2 	Ni			Two
3 	San			Three
4 	Shi ( Or Yon )		Four
5 	Go			Five
6 	Roku			Six
7 	Shichi ( Or Nana )	Seven
8 	Hachi			Eight
9 	Ku (Or Kyu)		Nine
10 	Ju			Ten
11 	Ju Ichi			Eleven
12	Ju Ni			Twelve
13 	Ju San			Thirteen
20 	Ni Ju			Twenty
21 	Ni Ju Ichi		Twenty One
22 	Ni Ju Ni		Twenty Two
23 	Ni Ju San		Twenty Three
30 	San Ju			Thirty
31 	San Ju Ichi		Thirty One
32 	San Ju Ni		Thirty Two
33 	San Ju San		Thirty Three
40 	Yon Ju			Forty
50 	Go Ju			Fifty
60 	Roku Ju			Sixty
70	Nana Ju			Seventy
80 	Hachi Ju		Eighty
90	Kyu Ju			Ninty
100 	Hyaku			One Hundred
101 	Hyaku Ichi		One Hundred and One
102 	Hyaku Ni		One Hundred and Two
200 	Ni Hyaku		Two Hundred
300 	San Hyaku		Three Hundred
1,000 	Sen			One Thousand
2,000 	Ni Sen			Two Thousand
3,000 	San Sen			Three Thousand
10,000 	Man			Ten Thousand 
 

KATA

White				Taikyoku shodan(Kihon to count)
Red				Taikyoku shodan(Kihon)
Yellow				Heian Shodan
Orange				Heian Nidan
Green				Heian Sandan
Blue				Heian Yondan
Purple				Heian Godan
Brown				Tekki Shodan
Brown & white			Bassai Dai
Brown & double white		Empi
	"			Kanku Dai
	"			Jion
	"			Jitte

Black 1st Dan			Hangetsu
	"			Gankaku
	"			Bassai Sho
	"			Kanku Sho
	"			Tekki Nidan
Black 2nd Dan			Jiin
	"			Chinte
	"			Sochin
	"			Tekki Sandan
	"			Nijushiho
Black 3rd Dan +			Unsu
	"			Meikyo  (Rohai)
	"			Wankan
	"			Gojushiho Sho
	"			Gojushiho Dai



ENSKAHOME
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